ARISING -- SPECIES ORIGIN
"The origin of species
is the question of questions in Zoology; the supreme problem which the
most striking of our original labourers, the clearest zoological thinkers,
and the most successful generalisers, have never lost sight of, whilst
they have approached it with due reverence" -- Sir Richard Owen
after he had reviewed Darwin's theories.
The pre-ordained revelation of living things was accomplished through
information technology. The earth was "founded...by wisdom",
and the heavens were "established...by understanding" (Pro.3:19).
The procedure for building complex structures by wisdom and understanding
follows different lines to that of building them with a wheelbarrow and
trowel. The language and the concepts of origins employed in Scripture
are sophisticated beyond our understanding. Einsteinian relativity, gravity,
the expanding universe, mechanisms of planet formation, information technology,
the revelation of the species, couched in language suggestive of advanced
We have postulated information pre-programming, as an aspect of the
"wisdom and understanding" by which the universe, including
the species, was revealed. We have raised the possibility of three mechanisms
through which this may have been achieved:
1). Information storage and transmission, principally involving the solar
2). Enviromental change; and
3). Information capacity inherent in the design of DNA itself.
It is here suggested that these three work in concert. What precisely
is the role of each? Did these roles change throughout geologic history?
Are these the only mechanisms involved? How did they work in concert to
bring about the transformation of one species to another?
Is there an ingenious capability to self-extend built into DNA?
Imagine a DNA strand to be a long aggregation of cogs, or gearboxes.
Microbes do not require as many gearboxes as elephants. Assume DNA --
of which we know so little -- has "buttons", which enviromental
change can "push". By pushing the button, the DNA is activated
to the building of a new category of gearbox. The manufacture of basic
patterns of gearbox is inherent in the molecule, whilst individual and
specific new species information came from outside. When the world stood
in need of trees, pre-ordained enviromental conditions caused the "tree
gearbox" buttons to be pushed, and the way in which living organisms
are designed led to vast new gearbox availability in some plants. The
same or subsequent enviromental changes triggered the laying down of potential
"flying" and "tree-climbing" gearboxes in some animals.
Trees appeared, and in time animals began to climb trees and to fly. Environmental
pressure alone could not cause an organism to develop tree-gripping claws
and wings. However, if DNA was designed so that an environmental signal
would cause it to lay down wing and climbing-claw building capacity, and
quantum (i.e., atom - altering) signalling in combination with environmental
circumstances gave specific "building instructions", could the
climbing and flying organisms begin to be revealed?
This leads us to consider information input from outside nature. As we
have already observed, the scriptural langauge of origins is extremely
sophisticated. For example, all complex life was created on the
fifth day, and yet land animals and birds were formed out of the ground
on the sixth day. Create signifies momentous action. Formed
out of the ground signifies common, or secondary, posibly modifying
action. Therefore, formed out of the ground presumably means to
give land-dwelling capability to already-existing life-forms. At this
point in geologic history - early on the sixth day - DNA etc. in
some organisms was presumably profoundly altered. Was this modifying process
something that Biology will be able to understand, or is it beyond the
reach of human research? Items such as lungs, legs, and sun-resistant
skin, are not simple. The language of the Sriptures appears to leave open
the question of whether or not the emplacement of land-dwelling capability
was a humanly understandable process. Like the emplacement of climbing
claw- and wing- building capacity, it wasn't simple.
Leaving momentous events such as creation and modification from outside
the biosphere aside: if the pre-programmed realization of the species
was achieved through quantum signalling, with environmental conditions
as triggers, research should reveal the mechanisms. Research has barely
dabbled its toe in this pond. If any one thing can be concluded from science's
understanding of quantum information processes and living cells, it is
that evolutionary teachings to date must have been drawn from the aethereal
aether -- there hasn't been an oversupply of facts! One line of approach
could be to exhaustively analyze the DNA of an ancient life-form, and
compare it with that of a recent species. The Coelacanth is a possible
candidate? Coelacanths were fishes prominent during the Devonian Period.
This gives them a probable age of the order of 350 - 400 mill. yrs. Other
living organisms have a longer history, but perhaps have not been as thoroughly
analyzed for genetic information? The living representative(s) of the
Coelacanths closely resemble other members of their family, although they
are currently classified as different species to any of those so far described
from Devonian fossil remains. It seems reasonable to regard Coelacanths
as truly ancient organisms? Work
on these "living fossils" is underway. A layman's reading
of the `drop in the bucket' of information currently available, would
not contradict, and perhaps would support, the following?
a). The information devices of ancient fishes were modern -- that is,
they were of the same functional design throughout time.
b). The DNA of the Coelacanth is of the same order of complexity as
that of fishes which appeared more than 100 million years later. This
could support the idea that DNA could have carried latent information
c). The DNA of fish is markedly different from that of land animals.
As Genesis tells us, land animals were "formed of earth"
on day 6 -- a novel and semi-unique input of land-dwelling capacity,
the impartation processes of which we may or may not be able to fully
Thus the information currently available points to information storage
and transmission mechanisms being basically the same throughout geologic
history. It could allow for DNA to have been a pre-programmed "storehouse"
of some information, with environment as a "trip" or "trigger".
When environmental conditions called for new species, latent modifications
which had lain dormant in the DNA itself, combined with external quantum
information-signalling, brought about the transformations.
Probable evidence of such "latent modifications" has been unearthed
by scientists studying genes involved in limb development (Hox genes).
Researchers have "found that the genetic capability seen in tetrapods
to build limbs is present in ... primitive fish" (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070523132701.htm).
The discovery that fish possessed genes associated with tetrapod limb
development long before the appearance of tetrapods indicates that advanced
genetic information was latent in early species.
Would a cell with reprogrammed DNA be recognized and attacked by the
auto-immune system? Notwithstanding our ignorance in this area we have
strong circumstantial evidence that modified cells can exist in organisms
without being recognized as foreign. Cancer is a striking example of a
mutated, or different, cell, escaping detection by the immune system.
Assume environmental pressures have caused a strain or race within a
species to become isolated, and a cell or cells within an individual of
this separated race has been reprogrammed for a new species. This reprogrammed
cell will contain all the genetic information required by the new species:
but how will the new species be born and reared? In any unfolding species
sequence, individuals of one species were physically similiar to the next.
It is theoretically possible for an animal of one species to conceive,
give birth to, and rear an individual of another species, provided it
has been programmed to do so. The two species can theoretically be made
conformable through re-programming. Thus, one species does not give birth
to another, since it has already (in a real sense) become the other. Because
of re-programming, the mother saw its offspring to be its own, and treated
it as such. Mothers' milk, if necessary, was rendered acceptable through
immune-system re-programming. Foods and lifestyles were similar. Impartation
of the complete new species code into the DNA may have taken place when
only one or two cells required it -- perhaps in the mother and father(?)
before conception, or soon after conception. Many aspects of living things
Something keeps species reproductively isolated. For example, even if
a horse and donkey can be successfuly crossed to produce a mule, something
prevents the mule -- and all such hybrids -- from going on to produce
offspring so as to generate a new species. There is, in nature, a 'species
lock'. We have conjectured that this 'lock' or 'bar' is an aspect of the
workings of the auto-immune and reproductive systems, and involves information
technology and biochemistry. The 'lock' must be simple. How was the 'combination'
of this 'lock' tripped, to allow species transformation? New developments
in biology bring us close to answering such questions!
Twenty-first century advances known as Epigenetics - are they game-changing?
"Lamarckism" pre-dates Darwinism. Best known for his idea of
inheritance of acquired characteristics, Lamarck proposed species transformation
being guided by an existing species' response to environment. The predecessor
of the giraffe felt a need to reach higher! Somehow, the feeling got through!
(Lamarck's proposed mechanisms were no better than Darwin's.) Combine
Lamarck's idea with Sir Richard Owen's information driven transformer
'archetypes'. ..... information processing ....... at the moment of transformation,
stored information relating to needed response to environment is processed
to become permanently written into DNA ..... along with other necessary
changes to 're-wire' the living cells........ what do we have??
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
(2011, July 25). Epigenetic 'memory' key to nature versus nurture. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved August 6, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110724135553.htm.
Quote, "Researchers at the John Innes Centre have made a discovery,
reported this evening (24 July) in Nature, that explains how an organism
can create a biological memory of some variable condition, such as quality
of nutrition or temperature. The discovery explains the mechanism of
this memory -- a sort of biological switch -- and how it can also be
inherited by offspring."
Chial, H. &
Akst, J. "Epigenetics" [Online] Scitable. Accessed 26 May
2012. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/scitable/spotlight/epigenetics-26097411.
Epigenetic changes to DNA have intrigued and puzzled researchers. They
are physical changes to DNA that don't involve the base sequence, but
rather act on top of the sequence, and ultimately shape gene expression.
What are these epigenetic molecules? How do they affect organisms? Learn
about epigenetics. COMMENT: This developing field of Epigenetics
suggests the possibility (as predicted by creationtheory.com, shortly
after the turn of the millennium) that DNA is designed to pick up environmental
information as time passes. Presumably, it is also designed so that,
once a critical amount of additional information (our transformation
agents) is appended, the scene is set so that species transformation
can occur. The transformation agents are acted upon so that their characteristics
became a permanent aspect of the DNA. The events involved in transformation
remain obscure, but presumably environmental pressure for change plays
a triggering role, whilst some sort of quantum signalling must happen
at the critical instant. This transformation will be a product of the
heavens especially, the sun-earth- moon system. It may well involve
light and the magnetic field. Yet it will simultaneously be a product
of earth-bound species, themselves, which are in a state of readiness
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
(2011, October 14). From blue whales to earthworms, a common mechanism
gives shape to living beings. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 15, 2011,
QUOTE (emphasis added), "
process is astonishingly simple. In the embryo's first moments, the
Hox genes are dormant, packaged like a spool of wound yarn on the DNA.
When the time is right, the strand begins to unwind. When the embryo
begins to form the upper levels, the genes encoding the formation of
cervical vertebrae come off the spool and become activated. Then it
is the thoracic vertebrae's turn, and so on down to the tailbone. The
DNA strand acts a bit like an old-fashioned computer punchcard, delivering
specific instructions as it progressively goes through the machine.
"A new gene comes out of the spool every ninety minutes, which
corresponds to the time needed for a new layer of the embryo to be built,"
explains Duboule. "It takes two days for the strand to completely
unwind; this is the same time that's needed for all the layers of the
embryo to be completed." This system is the first "mechanical"
clock ever discovered in genetics. And it explains why the system
is so remarkably precise. This discovery is the result of many years
of work. Under the direction of Duboule and Daniël Noordermeer,
the team analyzed thousands of Hox gene spools. With assistance from
the Swiss Institute for Bioinformatics, the scientists were able to
compile huge quantities of data and model the structure of the spool
and how it unwinds over time.
The Hox clock is a demonstration
of the extraordinary complexity of evolution. One notable property of
the mechanism is its extreme stability, explains Duboule. "Circadian
or menstrual clocks involve complex chemistry. They can thus adapt to
changing contexts, but in a general sense are fairly imprecise. The
mechanism that we have discovered must be infinitely more stable and
precise. Even the smallest change would end up leading to the emergence
of a new species.""
Emory University (2009, October 17). Seeing Blue: Fish
Vision Discovery Makes Waves In Evolutionary Biology. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved October 20, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091016121827.htm
New York Medical College (2011, June 22). New theory
on origin of birds: Enlarged skeletal muscles. ScienceDaily. Retrieved
July 3, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110622115317.htm
Newman draws on earlier work from his laboratory that provided evidence
for the loss, in the common dinosaur ancestors of birds and lizards,
of the gene for uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1). The product of this gene
is essential for the ability of "brown fat," tissue that protects
newborns of mammals from hypothermia, to generate heat. In birds, heat
generation is mainly a function of skeletal muscles.
"Unlike the scenario in which the evolution of flight is the driving
force for the origin of birds, the muscle expansion theory does not
require functionally operative intermediates in the transition to flight,
swimming, or winglessness, nor does it require that all modern flightless
birds, such as ostriches and penguins, had flying ancestors. It does
suggest that the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs may have been related
to a failure to evolve compensatory heat-generating mechanisms in face
of the loss of UCP1," says the scientist"
Northwestern University (2010, July 16). Human sperm
gene is 600 million years old, scientists discover. ScienceDaily. Retrieved
July 17, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100715172000.htm.
NYU Langone Medical Center (2012, June 7). Pregnancy:
Why mother's immune system does not reject developing fetus as foreign
tissue. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 10, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120607142244.htm.
QUOTE: "The research
team has discovered that the onset of pregnancy causes the genes that
are responsible for recruiting immune cells to sites of inflammation
to be turned off within the decidua. As a result of these changes, T
cells are not able to accumulate inside the decidua and therefore do
not attack the fetus and placenta. Specifically, they revealed that
the implantation of an embryo changes the packaging of certain chemokine
genes in the nuclei of the developing decidua's stromal cells. The change
in the DNA packaging permanently deactivates, or "silences,"
the chemokine genes. Consequently, the chemokines are not expressed
and T cells are not recruited to the site of embryo implantation. Also
of note, the observed change in the DNA packaging was a so-called 'epigenetic'
modification, meaning a modification that changes gene expression without
the presence of a hereditable gene mutation." PREDICTION: For one
species to be transformed to another in geologic time it will be necessary
that species in revelational sequence possessed an attribute enabling
the switching off of foetus rejection not only for the foetus of the
species in question but for the foetus of the species into which the
species in question transformed. It won't be quite that simple, but
that is the general idea. Species in revelational sequence will possess
a feature which enables their immune systems to be rendered compatible
in some way. What triggers the switching? Epigenetic style information
attachment, perhaps? Probably combined with an external quantum category
Rockefeller University (2009, April 17), 'New Nucleotide
in DNA Could Revolutionize Epigenetics' [Online]. Available from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090416144639.htm
(accessed 3rd May, 2009).
University of California - San Diego (2011, August 18).
Biologists' discovery may force revision of biology textbooks: Novel
chromatin particle halfway between DNA and a nucleosome. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved August 21, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110818142842.htm.
University of California - San Francisco (2010, December
17). Human fetal immune system arises from entirely different source
than adult immune system. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 27, 2010,
COMMENT: The immune
system of the foetus is compatible with he mother's, so that the foetus
is not rejected by the mother's body. Yet the immune system of the newborn
babe is different to the mother's, meaning that one human being cannot
interchange organs with another, without difficulties. I.e. the correct
information theoretically might make one species compatible with another
species in terms of immune systems?
University of California - Santa Barbara (2013, December
4). How to change cell types by flipping a single switch. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved December 5, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131204091618.htm.
QUOTE: "With C. elegans
as the animal model, lead author Misty Riddle, a Ph.D. student in the
Rothman Lab, used transcription factor ELT-7 to change the roundworm's
pharynx cells into intestine cells in a single-step process. Every cell
has the genetic potential to become any kind of cell. However, the cell's
history and the signals it receives changes the transcription factors
it contains and thus determines what kind of cell it will become. A
transcription factor is a protein that causes genes to turn on.
"This discovery is quite surprising because it was previously thought
that only early embryonic cells could be coaxed into changing their
identity this readily," Riddle said. "The committed cells
that we switched are completely remodeled and reprogrammed in every
way that we tested."" COMMENT: The idea that one species can
transform to another as a product of time without information technology
of the highest order was rightly dismissed by Sir Richard Owen and indeed
by every recognized and respected thinker. Human technology is clearly
pointing to the methods involved and of course the Bible was already
there. In theory, an individual of one species can be transformed into
the parent of a new species and given all the genetic information pertaining
to the new species. The new species is not in ultimate reality a new
species, because its information base already existed. It only remains
for human technology to fill in the gaps.
University of California
- Santa Cruz (2011, August 21). Three waves of evolutionary innovation
shaped diversity of vertebrates, genome analysis reveals. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110818142738.htm.
previous studies have shown that important evolutionary changes in animals
have resulted from the gain, loss, or modification of gene regulatory
elements, rather than from the evolution of new protein-coding genes.
"Most of the changes that have happened during vertebrate evolution,
as animals acquired new body plans and features like feathers and hair,
were not the result of new genes but of new regulatory elements that
turn genes on and off in different patterns," Haussler said."
University of Chicago Medical Center (2011, July 11).
Genetic switch for limbs and digits found in primitive fish: Before
animals first walked on land, fish carried gene program for limbs. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved August 6, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110711151453.htm.
switches control the timing and location of gene activity. When a particular
switch taken from fish DNA is placed into mouse embryos, the segment
can activate genes in the developing limb region of embryos, University
of Chicago researchers report in Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences. The successful swap suggests that the recipe for limb development
is conserved in species separated by 400 million years of evolution."
University of New South Wales (2011, June 7). Scientists
use super microscope to pinpoint bodys immunity 'switch'. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110605132429.htm.
Quote, "The discovery overturns prevailing understanding, identifying
the exact molecular 'switch' that spurs T-cells into action -- a breakthrough
that could lead to treatments for a range of conditions from auto-immune
diseases to cancer."
University of North Carolina School of Medicine (2011,
July 21). Researchers identify seventh and eighth bases of DNA. ScienceDaily.
Retrieved August 6, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110721142408.htm.
Yale University (2011, September 3). Manipulating plants'
circadian clock may make all-season crops possible. ScienceDaily. Retrieved
September 20, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110901134643.htm
circadian clock is the internal timekeeper found in almost all organisms
that helps synchronize biological processes with day and night. In plants,
this clock is crucial for adjusting growth to both time and day and
to the seasons. The clock operates through the cooperative relationship
between "morning" genes and "evening" genes. Proteins
encoded by the morning genes suppress evening genes at daybreak, but
by nightfall levels of these proteins drop and evening genes are activated.
Intriguingly, these evening genes are necessary to turn on morning genes
completing the 24-hour cycle. The Yale research solved one of the last
remaining mysteries in this process when they identified the gene DET1
as crucial in helping to suppress expression of the evening genes in
the circadian cycle." QUESTION: Is it possible
that the day-night-day-night circadian rhythms of cellular chemistry
are a factor in the unrolling of the species? Psalm 19:2-3 "Day
unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge. There
is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard."
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